2014年10月21日 星期二

How to find the right destination? | 如何找到適合的會議地點?

add to that list-The French riviera, tuscany, santorini and Barcelona  Wanderlust ♡ people to meet, places to go!
source: pinterest

Every experienced event planner knows the importance of site selection but when it comes to destination, it usually goes emotional of the decision makers that event planners, especially conference organizers, put a lot of effort on getting the decision makers back to the reality. Therefore, as a professional organizer, what should we prepare and what the decision should be award of when the decision comes in place?

1. The Objective of the meeting
Always keep the OBJECTIVE in mind. If this meeting comes along with incentive purpose, an ocean-side resort is just right for your attendees to bring up their family. If the meeting is quite serious for many countries flew in, a busy international airport is requires for the attendees. So here are several common objectives of international gathering and its best match.
- Incentive Meeting : resort at beach side; 5-star hotel in an authentic city
- Academic Conference : Multi-functional convention center in an easy-get-around city
- Professional Meeting : hotel near an international airport with frequent carriers

2. The Background of all attendee
To understand your attendee will help not only the decision on destination but also every step in plan. Senior attendees will appreciate short journey while young sales force, for example, may want to go far. It is why we need to understand who are your guests. 

3. The History of past meetings
Knowing where has been to is also a critical point that a fresh destination will motivate the attendance.

4. Clarify the Requirements
This point should be done after the initial inquiry. A RFP (request for proposal) will help. However, it usually changes when the plan becomes more specific. So, to clarify the requirements every time is suggested when every stakeholder gathers. The requirements may conclude the above and below but the key is to make sure everyone in the room is on the same page and all criteria is specific before the discussion goes further.

5. Accessibility
This speaks not only geographically but also politically - the VISA. Some countries are sensitive in this issue. Therefore, the easy accessibility to the destination for all attendees can only benefit when the VISA is easy to get.

6. Venue & Accommodation
When you pick up about 2-3 destination options, a venue detail should come through at the same time. Some destinations are popular for tourists but do not offer the right venue for your group. The same manner applies to Accommodation.

7. Availability
Every destination has its peak time so it is basic to check its availability on both venue & hotels.

8. Value of Money
Cost is the essential factor of a decision. Budget control is one task of a PCO so  always keep track on the budget line and evaluate every single penny is worthy of value. The past cases for clients to compare will help them to understand where their money pays to. 
A CVB (Convention and Visitor Bureaus) is another approach to make the meeting more valuable. Most CVB provides subsidy to inbound events when group size is big. So never forget to contact the local CVB and ask for the best treat from their monetary or other assistance. 

After all the information collected, remember to prepare the comparison of your options (suggested in Table or Figure). Then, good luck with your presentation!

After your destination is confirmed, your venue should be decided soon. Yet, Venue Selection is another phrase to consider. Let's see the tips in the next post!

※ Reference

2014年8月31日 星期日

Should we provide WiFi for free in an event? | WiFi應該免費提供嗎?

Wi-Fi: The Lifeblood of Events – Should It Be Free to Attendees? 
By © 2012 Corbin Ball Associates

As the use of mobile event apps continues to explode, there is an increasing demand by attendees to have easy-access, barrier-free and, hopefully, cost-free Wi-Fi in the meeting space and in sleeping rooms. Consider these statistics:
  • Free in-room Internet access ranked as the most desired guest-room amenity. -- Synovate survey, 2011, 6,300 people, 10 countries
  • 47 percent of respondents said a hotel must cater to their technology needs before they book it, with wireless  access a top priority. -- Synovate survey, 2011, 6,300 people, 10 countries
  • Internet access is at the top of things most guests care about hotels (including luxury, upscale, mid-scale full-service, economy/budget, and extended stay properties) -- J.D. Powers Survey, 201
  • Free Wi-Fi affects the choice of venue (64% yes; 31% maybe/depends on other factors as well; 5% no) – InStat survey, September 2010
Increasingly, meeting attendees are carrying around one or more wireless internet-enabled devices. They are business travelers and expect to check email, use social networks (40% of all tweets are mobile), and wish to take advantage of a wide range of mobile meeting and travel apps. For international attendees, the cost of roaming fees is often prohibitively expensive. Wi-Fi is their lifeline to stay connected. 
With this growing need and demand by attendees, planners are pressing venues for free event Wi-Fi and are making this a key criterion for venue selection. Associations such as ABPCO (Association of British Professional Conference Organisers) have a country-wide initiative to promote free basic conference Wi-Fi for attendees (see 
www.theconferencecloud.co.uk for details). 

The Challenges:
There are many issues involved:
  • 60% of travelers in the US, Europe and Australia indicate they already have had a poor hotel downloading experience because the system was slow. -- Ttnooz, Nov. 2011
  • Many facilities are unable to keep up with the demand. The 2011 Consumer Electronics Show (the world’s largest technology show) asked attendees to turn off their phones and Wi-Fi to enable access for the keynote presenters.
  • The demand for broadband is exploding for many events. For example, 5,000 attendees consumed one terabyte (one thousand billion bytes) of data via Wi-Fi in four days at the London Frieze Art Fair, Oct. 2011. This is one example of many.
  • 90% of meeting professionals have smartphones and/or iPads/tablet computers and 62% use their apps constantly throughout the day (M&C Research Survey, December 2011).
  • A November 2011 white paper by iBahn, a major hotel internet provider, notes that 25% of devices on their network are iPads. These video streaming and media consumption devices use 400% more data that the average iPhone,
  • 25 million iPads have been sold as of June 2011 (UnwiredView) and an amazing 5 million Wi-Fi only Amazon Kindle Fire tablets are estimated to have been sold in the last three months of 2011(J.P. Morgan, December 2011).
  • This explosion of iPad and other tablet computer is driving bandwidth requirements to what is felt by some hotels to be unsustainable levels. To quote David Garrison, iBahn CEO in the November 2011: “The iPad is the final nail in the ‘all internet is free’ coffin.”
  • There is a big discrepancy between event organizers and venue managers on whether attendees should receive free Wi-Fi: 90% off organizers say yes while only 48% of facility managers replied favorably (IAEE Survey, July 2011).
  • 64% of venue managers and CVB stakeholders feel that show managers have unrealistic expectations when it comes to what they want and are willing to pay for regarding event Wi-Fi (Red 7 Media, Summer 2011).

Some solutions:
The facts are that the Wi-Fi at many venues is not satisfactory (it sucks!) and with increasing bandwidth requirements things are getting worse. What can or should be done?
Here are some recommendations:
  • Meeting venues need to plan on high double-digit annual growth in Wi-Fi bandwidth requirements at least for the next five years. The good news is technically this is completely feasible. According to Ian Bull, Head of Sales Business Development for the Wireless Technology Group for Cisco, there is “significant growth potential for Wi-Fi using micro cells and Wi-Fi Hotspot 2.0 technology. Even very large venues with thousands of simultaneous users can be managed in a way that good quality wireless internet signal can be provided.”
  • Venues must step up to the plate and build the infrastructure for this growth. This will increasingly be the deciding factor in venue selection.
  •   Meeting venues should provide detailed assistance to meeting planners to help them determine the Wi-Fi and internet requirements. It is not enough to reply “yes we can provide Wi-Fi.” Many questions need to be asked, such as: Wireless internet for how many people simultaneously? On what devices? For what apps? In what locations? How much bandwidth is needed? Venues must know their capabilities and limitations well and communicate them to clients.
  •   Meeting planners also must educate themselves as well to the specific needs of their attendees, their expectations, their internet requirements, and must be very clear to venues about what they expect in detailed requests for proposal.

Dealing with Costs:
A major challenge is cost. Meeting venues are for-profit entities and the demand for internet services is growing exponentially. How can these costs be offset or limited?
Here is my view:
  • Venues should provide basic, mobile-friendly Wi-Fi internet access (512kb/s) throughout the entire facility (sleeping rooms/lobby/meeting rooms/exhibit hall) for free without the need for extensive log-in procedures. 512kb/s is fast enough to check email, tweet, and do some basic web browsing but not fast enough to stream HD video, download audio files, etc.
  •  Provide a reasonable rate “premium service” for attendees who desire more speed.
  •  Charge reasonable rates for specialized services: dedicated bandwidth, dedicated IP address, VPNs, specialized exhibit services, etc. As an example, the Las Vegas Convention Center (one of the largest in the world) in November 2011, launched their internet service plan: free for basic service, $13/day for premium service, and $100 for exhibitors.
  • Another option to offset costs is for meeting planners to solicit internet sponsorship. Internet access and mobile apps have many opportunities for splash page or banner ad sponsors. These page views are completely trackable and can provide great visibility to attendees using a much desired service.
  • With the increase in smart phones and tablets, cyber-cafes are going the way of the banks of pay phones. Divert the sponsorship funds and other monies spent on these services to help offset the cost of attendee internet access.
  • Venues should also look for sponsors.  Meeting attendees spend money at nearby establishments. Many of these businesses would likely be willing to pay for advertising space on conference Wi-Fi services to gain visibility.
  • Planners, exhibitors and attendees should expect to pay for premium internet services. Venues are for-profit entities and have every right to charge to cover costs at the minimum.  However, planners and attendees should not be gouged with exorbitant fees.  Hotels, convention centers and other venues should not consider internet services a major profit center any more that they consider providing lights and water for attendees and guests – Wi-Fi has become an expected utility.
  • The price gouging employed by a number of upper mid-scale and luxury hotel properties (i.e. US$9.95/day/each device) must stop! Planners and hotel guests commonly will be making venue decisions based on fair policies for internet access.
Wi-Fi challenges will likely get worse before they get better. The increasing demand will exceed the supply as venues struggle to upgrade their internet infrastructure. It will be incumbent on all venues to gear up for these increased bandwidth demands. It will also be important for planners, exhibitors, attendees and venues to educate themselves on the issues and help each other find the optimum way for providing Wi-Fi for events. As Wi-Fi increasingly becomes the communication life-blood of events, we will all need to work toward optimal solutions.

origin from ICCA Web, Volume 37 - January 2012

2014年8月12日 星期二

International Conference in the 3C world | 國際會議要準備什麼3C設備呢?

We always tell our team to prepare a conference from the aspect of speakers, delegates and, of course, the host organization. The reason is as simple as staying with the demand. In this 3C world, an international conference demands more attention on this segment.

Prepare for the HOST party
A PCO stands with the Host party from the beginning so the demands seem clear from each talk. Yet, it may be the case if it is the first time to the host. The experience and advice from the PCO is now valuable to help them prepare at the secretariat. A wireless printer with good connect to every laptop on site is helpful. At least 2 laptops at the secretariat with the access to the internet are basic to run the conference smoothly. Don’t forget to bring back-up files in the USB in case you lost internet connection to the drive. If there is no budget for a photographer, 2 cameras and its spare battery must be prepared for record purpose. As walkie-talkie has been replaced by mobile phones for the team communication, the mobile chargers or power bank are investable for the staff.

source: Wifi Printer -  Laptop

Prepare for the SPEAKERS
A projector is necessary without saying but it will be thoughtful to prepare a spare one for incidents while a speech is also completed with microphones, audios, and pointers. Internet access is also important but depends on speakers. A standby DVD player can give visual “aids” while needed.

Although advance collection on every speech is recommended, some speakers can change their material at the last minute and request to use his/her own laptop. Therefore, send a tech savvier to stands by and prepare for the different electronic current.

source: Projector - Pointers

Prepare for the Raining Day
Always plan a PLAN B. When we suggest preparing everything in 2 sets, it is not for quantity discount, rather all these are to prepare for any surprise, especially 3C equipment not under control all the time. Therefore, a technician to support on site would be very thoughtful.

So, next time when you prepare an event, remember to go through your facilities before opening!




2014年7月15日 星期二

服務業耀眼新星—會展產業人才認證出爐 (轉)


撰文 / 陳鈺婷








來自德國的國際展覽業協會(UFI)會長Jochen Witt9月底在台北舉行的「亞洲會展產業領袖論壇」中指出,「MICE產業的發展,絕對是跟著市場跑的,」而「MICE產業的動力,來自經濟成長。」





培養會展人才 刻不容緩










2014年7月9日 星期三

Good & Bad Conference Giveaway Ideas | 會議伴手禮送什麼好?

A successful conference is resulted from knowledgeable sessions, interesting keynote speeches, comfortable stay, amazing decoration or thoughtful service. Yet, the little free giveaway would go an extra mile to impress your attendee. It may not be very costly or luxury but it truly says something to the receivers itself. What kind of swag ever made you feel touched? What would amaze the conference goers? And, what is good to thank speakers? Here are some ideas for the conference organizers!

For All Conference Attendee
Image the whole journey a conference participant would take: prepare for leaving à get ready for conference à long flight à arrival with exhaustion à join conference. Standing in their shoes, the first thing they would need is something to refresh themselves and then would need handy stuff for conference and the following few days. Therefore, when we prepare the free gift for the guests, we should consider not only budget, although it leads the way, but also their needs. So, here are some ideas for you.

1.       Upon Arrival
To hand in a care package will give a sweeter welcome message than a Hawaiian Lei. A care package gives a small bottle of water, a quick snack (vegetarian in favor), wet tissue, comb, bandages, and maybe aspirin. Your company / conference logo is to be printed on the bag and to better put in the hotel information card. They would keep it with them throughout the conference and keep it mind afterwards.
Care Package            

First Aid Fabric Travel Kit Fabric Travel Roll by Shoppebylola, $10.00

If you are receiving a small group or your reception team is able to assist, a welcome gift on the bedroom would definitely surprise them. You can be very creative on welcome gifts, simple as local specialty, thoughtful as overnight amenities kit, or useful as travel charger.

Universal travel plug adapter - pretty and useful!

iPhone window solar charger
      Solar Charger

2.       At Registration
If registration is on the same day with arrival, a conference kit is a better choice to offer at registration desk, complete with pen, notepad, USB with session slides, map of the neighborhood, and of course the program booklet. To think about the topic / theme of your conference, you can also put in relevant products to smile your guests. For example, a new launched snack can be offered in a safe food conference yet remember to take the food preference in consideration.

Moleskin: handy & useful

Freebie & Tutorial | Monogram Stationery Gift Set | Mother’s Day Gift
source: pinterest - pinterest

3.       Before Closing
A farewell gift is similar to welcome gift but suggested to contain the conference minutes, like photos. Because the conference goers would get it before leaving, the size is better to be small and light that he/she can easily put in to luggage or carry on hand.

Customized Calendar
source: pinterest

For Speakers / Special Guests
As speakers or special guests only stay for one session time, a thank gift to give at the stage or right after stage would be nice. Also he/she might not carry heavy luggage so a valuable and slightly bigger gift is accepted, especially when you need the size to show your appreciation on his/her presence. Plaque with appreciation is common and easy to prepare. Yet, to impress your speakers/guests, some creation is needed, so do some research on his/her favorite or habit. A box of golf ball with his/her name would catch him/her right away if he/she loves golf.

 source: pinterest

to print names on golf
source: pinterest

All in all, people love free gift as well as new stuff. So, a Pen is not good enough, a Keychain is definitely out of date, an USB is not interesting anymore, Paper Weight is too much weight, and no one wants a T-shirt not in right size. If you mean to impress them instead of just a routine gift, understand your attendee and be more creative & customized.


Event Swag Your Attendees Will Love ... and Loathe

2014年6月13日 星期五

How to Arrange Food & Beverage in International Conferences | 國際會議怎麼安排食物?

Food and Beverage play an essential role in an international conference, which are the simplest and hardest to arrange. Why Food and Beverage matters when you plan your events? Because bad or insufficient food would sometimes ruin all the effort.

So, what diet might be arranged in a conference?

This is usually provided with hotels and only arranged by PCO mostly when breakfast meeting is required.

Continental Breakfast at The Gaige House, Napa
source: pinterest

Lunch boxes are highly recommended when full day meeting is on and this type would save time to be on schedule.

Japanese Autumn Bento Lunch: Takikomi-gohan (Seasoned rice with vegetables), Egg omelet, Sesame Spinach. Flower carrots are nice|弁当
source: pinterest

Dinner can be more diverse and most meetings demands one gala dinner or theme party for attendance to talk. Thus, it can be buffet, full served dinner, and so on.

Dinner buffet
source: pinterest

It is offered with drink, like coffee, during break and sometimes with dessert, bread and fruit.

source: Marriott

It looks easy but it can be complex in consideration to vegetarianism and religions. Here we are going to brief the diversity of dieters and their taboo food.

Vegetarian is universally understood to eat vegetables yet there are a number of types of vegetarianism.
Vegetarian excluding all animal flesh and products, such as milk, honey, and eggs, as well as items refined or manufactured through any such product, such as bone-char refined white sugar or animal-tested baking soda.
Ovo-Lacto Vegetarian includes animal/dairy products such as eggs, milk, and honey.
Ovo Vegetarian includes eggs but not dairy products.
Lacto Vegetarian includes dairy products but not eggs.
Buddhist has different teachings on diet. Many interpret the precept 'not to kill' to require abstinence from meat, but not all. Some excludes not only all animal products but also vegetables in the allium family: onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots.
Raw includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. Vegetables can only be cooked up to a certain temperature.

Vegetarian Mexican Salad Boats. Stick with a fat free dressing and this is one lean, mean meal.
source: pinterest
Quran mentions certain rules on Muslim diet and there are several organization to certificate this kind of food, known as Halal (حلال). The most famous forbidden food is alcohol and Pork, including its products and lard. For some very pious Muslim, they would even require all food to be proceeded by Muslim. 

The Halal Guys Chicken and Rice is one of my favorite frugal New York street food experiences.  Located on the corner of 53rd and 6th, New Yorkers and tourists alike line up for a taste of this mou...   Guide to Halal Food  Mosque in Chicago
source: pinterest - pinterest

Because Hinduism worships cattle, they don’t kill cattle and of course do not eat beef and some also refuse pork. Generally speaking, Indian believes to eat more vegetable is more civil so India has the biggest vegetarian population.

26 Traditional Indian Foods That Will Change Your Life Forever
source: pinterest

KASHRUT (Jewish Taboo Food)
Although this term is less common, it would be very appreciated to take it into consideration while preparing an international meeting. Jewish also prohibits pork, which is deemed as unclean animal. So are shellfish and most insects. What is interesting to know is: Meat and Milk cannot be mixed. 

Kosher- 1. Kosher is "fit" food according to kashrut, which is the Jewish dietary law. 2. They are to eat "clean" animals (that chews the cud and has a cloven hoof). 3. They can't have any type of human milk. 4. Can't mix meat, milk, wine, and grape when they're preparing food. 5. Recite blessings before they eat. 6. Vegetables are considered kosher as long as there is no bugs inside. 7. Kosher is not a style of cooking. 8. Any food can kosher as long as it's prepared according to Jewish law.
source: pinterest

Allergy is more difficult to handle as the immune system reacts differently by individuals. Yet, the Food and Drug Administration USA lists eight most common food that trigger food allergies by 90% estimated possibility. It can be our best reference for food arrangement. These eight foods are: Milk, Eggs, Peanuts, Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, walnuts), Fish (such as bass, cod, flounder), Shellfish (such as crab, lobster, shrimp), Soy, and Wheat

Perfect soft boiled egg. Boil in a steamer basket 6 min 45 seconds then plunge into ice bath. Perfect! Photo and recipe by Irvin Lin of Eat the Love. www.eatthelove.com   #Mleko to źródło życiodajnej energii dla Twojego malucha. Podaruj swojemu dziecku wszystko, co najlepsze na http://mlekolandia.pl/ 
source: pinterest - pinterst

Composting: Peanut Shells   Tree Nuts Can Lower Chronic Disease Risks and Help Prevent Obesity
 source: pinterest - pinterest

Fish Allergy Facts, Symptoms  @Mark Van Der Voort N Courtney Grauvogl   This might help you!!! - fish and shellfish allergies @Ashley Walters March
source: pinterest - pinterst

Soy Allergies: An Overview   No Celiac's Disease/gluten intolerance, but wheat allergy? This is what I have!

 source: pinterest - pinterest

To arrange the conference diet appropriately is the best way to show your respect to your guests. Many of us, who are free to any food, can dislike some certain food as well. It is always touching if friends can keep it in mind and try to escape it in the dishes. Remember there was a scene in Sex and the City. Carrie once dined out with her girl friend and she wanted to get rid of parley. So she lied to the waiter that she was allergic to it but the truth is she just didn't like it. So it is why we, as a conference organizer, need to be very careful, especially on religious taboo.

I love garlic, I think if they had to create garlic perfume, I'd be the first to buy it lolKeep Green Onions Fresh - I'm trying this right now :)Onion Flowers -- so easy -- These flowers are made by simply slicing an onion into eighths, without cutting all the way through the onion so that it stays intact on the bottom, but the ‘petals’ fall down when baking to create a beautiful flower shape.vegetables not accepted by Buddhist Vegetarian; picture source: pinterest - pinterest - pinterest

All in all, the conference dietary plan is suggested to be more comprehensive with all restrictions. For example, to put vegetable dishes on the menu is basic and to make it as strictly vegetarian, e.g. no garlic, no onion, no egg, and no dairy products, is even better. With regards to meat eaters, Chicken is globally accepted. As to seafood lover, fish is safer compared to shellfish. The top 10 most popular food in the world may give you some more idea.

The quantity is another key for feedback. Excess or insufficient food would both lead to negative feedback. The historical dining data of the group and their background statistic, like gender or age, are very helpful to order food. The other reference is their meeting schedule. Don’t plan two meals in short interval nor long. Four hours with light refreshment always works for a big group meeting.

Speaking to refreshment, it is prepared to wake up the attendance in the long and dry meetings. Hot coffee and tea is essential to play the role. Finger food completes the break session.

Therefore, if to take all the above into consideration, it would help to collect the dietary requirement in advance to the conference.

※ Reference ※

2014年5月12日 星期一

How do we win the bid? 我們怎麼贏得標案?

source: penny auction

How do we win the bid? The first thing and also the only is RESEARCH!
It does sound funny, doesn't it? We are drafting a proposal, not a paper! Yes, you are and you do need research… on your decision makers, on your competitors, on your destination, on the congress objectives, on the neighborhood, on your own capacity, etc. It is not a joke! When you bid, you are in a battle where you need strategies and throughout understandings. So, let's have a look at the ‘cooking recipe’!

1.    Understand the association objective
Give your audience what they need and want, not yours! So, always keep the objective in mind when planning. Otherwise you will hear: “Thanks, your idea is brilliant but not what we are looking for!”.
2.    Research and Analyze
Analyze your own strength and weakness. Understand who your competitors are. Find out the final decision makers. Know the game rules.
3.    See through the Request for Proposal / Bid Manual
Make sure you do! Just like the old saying: the devil is in the details.
4.    Follow it!
Don’t bother to create your own format. By this, I mean you can amaze them in anyway but put everything required into your proposal in order. So, the board can compare one with another. No one is happy looking up for one thing leaf to leaf.
5.    Develop the Bid Documents
Easy to read (no slang or jargon)
Use images and illustrations
Use correct English
Determine format (online vs. print)
Share responsibility
Be innovative!
6.    Build up the bidding team
Local host
Convention Bureau
Government representative/City official

 source: CIO

Many associations fail in bidding even though they prepare thoughtfully. Many see it like cooking with recipe, easy! But not all of us are talent at cooking. Therefore, even International Congress & Convention Association (ICCA) emphasizes the importance of appointing a PCO for bidding because a good PCO is:
- Responsible: To be your reliable partner
- Knowledgeable : You don't have to reinvent the wheel
- Experience: Learning a lot from past experiences & mistakes
- Expertise: So, you can be one step ahead of your competitors
- Specialization: Make your bid proposal unique

source: pinterest

競標,似乎是很多協會組織的一大難題;倒不是因為沒有人或是不夠專業,更多時候是他們太輕忽了。以為照著食譜就可以做出滿漢全席,但其實不是所有人都有天份可以當廚師,是吧?! 的確,寫一份競標書不難,只要注意以下幾點:
1. 了解該組織的目標。給顧客要的,而不是自己有的,才能吸引到顧客。
2. 做足功課並分析。要去了解的不只是目標,還有誰做決定、這場遊戲的規則、對手是誰等等。
3. 看清楚招標書。魔鬼藏在細節裡,對吧?! 所以確實看清楚招標的內容,才不會寫出一份牛頭不對馬嘴的企劃書。
4.  照著做!這點很重要。就像所有主考官一樣,如果它們還需要翻來翻去找資料,那他們很有可能會當作你沒有寫到。除非你買了保險,不然不要隨便冒這種風險。
5.  寫標書時要注意:容易閱讀、多使用圖片及示意圖、使用正確的語言、確定形式(電子檔或書面)、分擔責任、要有創意。
6.  建立競標團隊。團隊成員從當地的主辦方、政府組織、場地聯絡人、PCO到企業代表都可以。